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AOR, Vitamin K2, 120mcg, 60 caps - Vitamin K2 from AOR is menatetrenone, a form of Vitamin K2 made in the body from phylloquinone (vitamin K1). Available science indicates that Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) is superior to vitamin K1 in maintaining the health of the bones and vascular system
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AOR, Vitamin K2, 120mcg, 60 caps

AOR Vitamin K2 - 60 vcaps
Vitamin K2 - 60 vcaps, aor vitamins supplements
AOR, Vitamin K2, 120mcg, 60 caps is manufactured by AOR Supplements

Last updated on 12/5/2016

AOR Vitamin K2

  •  Now with MK-4 & MK-7
  •  Supports healthy bones
  •  Supports normal calcium metabolism
  •  Promotes blood vessel health

AOR Vitamin K2 from AOR now provides MK-4 and MK-7, two natural forms of Vitamin K2 that help maintain bone health. Although it interferes with "blood thinning" medications, it does not cause excessive or abnormal blood clotting.

NPN Product Code Size Per Capsule Vegetarian
80014730 AOR04143 60 Vegi-Caps 120 mcg Vegetarian
Supplement Facts
Serving Size: 1 Capsule


Vitamin K2 120 mcg
- MK-4 60 mcg
- MK-7 (from soy) 60 mcg
 
Non-medicinal ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, dicalcium phosphate. Capsule: hypromellose.

AOR Guarantees: that no ingredients not listed on the label have been added to the product. Contains no corn, wheat, gluten, nuts, dairy, eggs, fish, shellfish or any animal byproduct.

Adult Dosage: Take 1 capsule daily with food, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.

Cautions: Do not use if taking anticoagulant (“blood thinning”) medications such as warfarin (Coumadin®).

Pregnancy/Nursing: Do not use

Source:
MK-4 - pharmaceutical synthesis
MK-7 - biofermentation from natto

Main Indications:

  • Bone health
  • Cardiovascular health

Research

Vitamin K is an essential component for health, and deficiency can cause serious consequences in cardiovascular, bone and liver health. Vitamin K was discovered in the early part of the last century. Originally, it was thought mostly to contribute to blood clotting. However, the latter half of the 1900s saw vitamin K clinically used in Japan to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures in women.

AOR’s New 50/50 K2  Blend
Over 90% of all studies on bone health have been done with MK-4, and 40 to 50 of these were of large scale and long duration. MK-7 has been the subject of more research over the past several years, and the most recent bioavailability comparison study has answered several questions that previously cast doubt on the efficacy of MK-7. While this research is promising, there are still many unanswered questions. Due to the strong historical clinical use and effectiveness of MK-4 and the significance of the new research on MK-7, AOR has opted to provide a 50/50 blend of both forms in order to provide the full range of benefits of vitamin K2.

The Vitamin K Family
Vitamin K constitutes a family of compounds that exist as natural vitamin K1   (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinones) and the synthetic form vitamin   K3 (menadionione).  Vitamin K1 is the   more prevalent form in our diet and is found in leafy green vegetables   (lettuce, broccoli, cabbage, spinach etc) and vegetable oils. Vitamin K2 has   several forms, two of which are commonly used as supplements: menatetrenone   (MK-4), which is found in animal tissue, and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) which is   abundant in fermented soy foods like natto. The chemical structure consists   of a benzene ring (napthoquinone) and a side chain with various numbers of   isoprenyl groups. The suffix numbers 4, 7, 8 and 9 refer to the position of   these groups.

Bone Health
Bone is a living tissue that continually undergoes remodeling via synthesis  and degradation of bone tissue by osteoblast and osteoclast cells   respectively. In addition to other key nutrients for proper bone-remodeling e.g. calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, magnesium and manganese, vitamin K  plasma status is important for maintaining healthy bone. Osteocalcin is a small protein and the degree of its carboxylation (hence vitamin K status) is   a measure of bone health. There is a direct correlation between carboxylation of osteocalcin and bone health.

Cardiovascular Health
Vitamin K2 contributes to healthy blood clotting. Recently, its importance in   maintaining healthy blood vessels and reducing the risk of arterial calcification has been highlighted.

Pharmacological functions:
The chief function of vitamin K is to act as a co-factor (an adjunct) for vitamin K-dependent proteins in the body and convert the glutamate residues of these proteins into gamma-carboxyglutamate group via an enzymatic process of carboxylation. Such proteins include coagulation factors (II, IV, VI and   C), bone turnover molecules (osteocalcin and protein S), vascular repair proteins (Matrix GLA) and proteins responsible for cell-cycle arrest, signal transduction and cell-cell adhesion. The latter three proteins have implications in aberrant growth of cells e.g. tumorigenesis.

Comparing MK-4 & MK-7

Bioavailability
Although no studies have directly compared the distribution, metabolism and excretion of MK-4 and MK-7, the first bioavailability study comparing their absorption into the bloodstream has been published. This study showed that amounts of MK-4 lower than 420 mcg did not result in detectable levels in the bloodstream at 0, 2 and 4 hours and beyond while amounts of MK-7 as low as 60 mcg resulted in measurable levels in the blood, peaking at 6 hours. However, no measurements were taken within the first two hours.

Dose
Most of the best studies on MK-4 have been conducted using doses ranging from 15-90 mg. These studies have shown positive results for various health indications. High doses of MK-4 were found to reduce fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis, and some researchers suggest that those doses are much higher than what is required to carboxylate bone proteins like osteocalcin which is a marker of bone quality. Other studies have shown that doses of MK-4 at least 500-1500 mcg are required for the carboxylation of osteocalcin, while doses of 45-90 mcg of MK-7 accomplish this task.

Benefits unique to MK-4

It is thought that all forms of vitamin K are converted into MK-4 for use. Interestingly, levels of MK-4 but not MK-7 rise significantly in breast milk and bone tissue when supplementing with MK-7. It is also thought that MK-4 has other specific functions that are not related to gamma-carboxylation. Indeed, studies with MK-4 have found that it has benefits for arterial calcification and hepatocellular carcinoma, a form of liver cancer, via suppression of NF-kB. MK-4 alone also appears to activate genes in osteoblasts (cells that build bone) while MK-7 did not. To this point, MK-7 has been studied uniquely for gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin, so it is unclear whether supplementing with MK-7 exerts the same additional effects as MK-4.

Heath Benefits of K2

Bone Health
In human studies low serum vitamin K levels have been associated with increased incidence of osteopenia (pre-osteoporotic condition) and full blown osteoporosis. Japanese studies have shown that in areas where there is high consumption of natto (Eastern Japan- Tokyo) the incidence of osteoporosis and hip fractures is significantly lower compared to Western Japan (Hiroshima) where the incidence of natto consumption is low (hence low vitamin K levels).

A study comparing the bioavailability of MK-4 to MK-7 head to head has finally been published. This study showed a dose of 60 mcg of MK-7 is sufficient to significantly activate osteocalcin. However, there are a wealth of studies demonstrating the benefits of MK-4, benefits that are not shown by MK-7. MK-4 has been extensively clinically studied for its effects on bone metabolism and other areas of health.

Vascular Health
Arterial calcification shares many similarities with bone metabolism. Matrix GLA protein is found in vascular tissue. Under carboxylation of this protein (much like osteocalcin) is an indication of low plasma K levels and consequently the arterial tissue is less elastic due to increased calcium deposition resulting in increased incidence of cardiovascular mortality and ischemic heart disease. Studies have shown that vitamin K intake can have a protective effect and prevents loss of elasticity, a key indicator of vascular health. Furthermore, there is a recent clinical study from the UK which shows that vitamin K may protect not only against warfarin induced calcification but also may stabilize and help control anticoagulation levels. However, it is strongly advised that patients taking blood thinning medication like warfarin (Coumadin) should consult their physicians before taking vitamin K2.

Hepatocellular carcinoma
Studies have suggested that high levels of vitamin K intake in the form of MK-4 may be associated with a lower incidence of one particular type of liver  cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). The mechanism is postulated to be an effect on inhibiting the cell-cycle, cell-cell adhesions (and possibly the ability to metastasize).

Market Trends

It is now known that Vitamin K2 produces superior results and is better absorbed and utilized in the body than the plant form vitamin K1 found in green leafy vegetables. MK-4 is the form of vitamin K2 found in animal tissue, has been clinically used in Japan for decades and has dozens of quality clinical trials supporting its effectiveness for bone health. A second form of supplemental vitamin K2 has recently emerged onto the market, namely MK-7. MK-7 has been found to activate an important bone protein at low doses and in a sustained-release manner.

AOR Advantage

Driven by research, AOR’s new formulation offers a 50/50 blend of 60 mcg each of both forms of vitamin K2 in order to provide an adequate dose for the absorption benefits of MK-7 while still providing MK-4, which has been successfully clinically studied and used for bone health for decades and is the primary form found in the human body.

References

Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Shen CL, Yeh JK. Beneficial effect of pretreatment and treatment continuation with risedronate and vitamin K2 on cancellous bone loss after ovariectomy in rats: a bone histomorphometry study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2006 Oct;52(5):307-15.

Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y. Menatetrenone (vitamin K2) and bone quality in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nutr Rev. 2006 Dec;64(12):509-17.

Kakizaki S, Sohara N, Sato K, Suzuki H, Yanagisawa M, Nakajima H, Takagi H, Naganuma A, Otsuka T, Takahashi H, Hamada T, Mori M. Preventive effects of vitamin K on recurrent disease in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C viral infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Apr;22(4):518-22.

Knapen MH, Drummen NE, Smit E, Vermeer C, Theuwissen E. Three-year low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2013 Sep;24(9):2499-507.

Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K(2) supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007 Jul;18(7):963-72.

Ozaki I, Zhang H, Mizuta T, Ide Y, Eguchi Y, Yasutake T, Sakamaki T, Pestell RG, Yamamoto K. Menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 analogue, inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth by suppressing cyclin D1 expression through inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB activation. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 1;13(7):2236-45.

Purwosunu Y, Muharram , Rachman IA, Reksoprodjo S, Sekizawa A. Vitamin K2 treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Indonesia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2006 Apr;32(2):230-4.

Sato T, Schurgers LJ, Uenishi K. Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women. Nutr J. 2012 Nov 12;11:93.

Theuwissen E, Teunissen KJ, Spronk HM, Hamulyák K, Ten Cate H, Shearer MJ, Vermeer C, Schurgers LJ. J Thromb Haemost. Effect of low-dose supplements of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2 ) on the stability of oral anticoagulant treatment: dose-response relationship in healthy volunteers. 2013 Jun;11(6):1085-92.


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