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AOR, Carnosine-500, 500mg, 60 caps - Carnosine is a dipeptide found in high concentrations in brain and muscle tissues. A potent inhibitor of damage to proteins from sugar (glycation) and scavenger of free radicals, carnosine has been shown to reverse cellular senescence in culture. Prelimin
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AOR, Carnosine-500, 500mg, 60 caps

AOR Carnosine 500 - 60 vcaps
Carnosine 500 - 60 vcaps, aor vitamins supplements
AOR, Carnosine-500, 500mg, 60 caps is manufactured by AOR Supplements

Last updated on 12/5/2016

Carnosine-500

  • Provides beta-alanine and L-histidine
  • Prevents cellular damage
  • Rejuvenates cells
  • Supports muscle function

Carnosine is a dipeptide of beta-alanine and L-histidine found in high concentrations in brain and muscle tissues and is a potent antioxidant and scavenger of free radicals.

NPN Product Code Size Per Capsule Vegetarian
80027219 AOR04263 60 Vegi-Caps 506 mg Vegetarian
Supplement Facts
Serving Size: 1 Capsule
Amount Per Serving

L-Carnosine 500 mg
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 6 mg

Non-medicinal ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose. Capsule: hypromellose.

AOR Guarantees: that no ingredients not listed on the label have been added to the product. Contains no wheat, gluten, corn, nuts, dairy, soy, eggs, fish or shellfish or any animal byproduct.

Adult Dosage: Take 1 capsule daily on an empty stomach, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.

Cautions: Consult a health care practitioner for use beyond 8 weeks.

Pregnancy/Nursing: Consult a health care practitioner prior to use

Source:
Biological fermentation

Main Indications:

  • Anti-Aging
  • Normal cell growth
  • Healthy cellular function
  • Sports nutrition

Research

Background Information

Carnosine is a simple dipeptide (that is, two amino acids joined together – in this case, beta-alanine and histidine). But don’t let that simplicity fool you: simply put, Carnosine is the most exciting anti-aging nutrient ever discovered. Carnosine is made by many cells in your body – and especially in muscle, heart, and brain cells. Longer-lived animals tend to have more Carnosine in their cells than do shorter-lived species, and preliminary research suggests that levels of Carnosine decline with aging (by 63% between the ages of 10 and 70 in humans).

Carnosine plays a central part in muscle contraction and in preventing fatigue, fending off lactic acidosis and allowing isolated muscle cells that have been pushed beyond their workload limits to contract again. In nerves, its concentration is so targeted, and its release so regular, that it was once thought to be a neurotransmitter; while it now looks as if that’s unlikely, Carnosine does play an important role in modulating brain cell function, simultaneously making neurons more sensitive to certain signals and protecting neurons from toxicity from overstimulation. In heart cells, Carnosine appears to be a central player in regulating the heartbeat through its role in regulating calcium ions. But none of that explains its ability to make old cells young.

A Remarkable Rejuvenation
The recent interest in Carnosine began with the work of doctors Gail McFarland and Robin Holliday at Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSRIO). The experiment was simple. First, raise lung and skin cells in one of two standard cell culture mediums. Then keep half of the cells in the original medium, but transfer the other half into the same medium supplemented with Carnosine.

The Carnosine-supplemented cells were able to keep reproducing longer, achieving anywhere from one to seven more population-doublings. And they lived longer: in fact, the longest-lived cells receiving the Carnosine bath survived up to two-thirds longer than the cells in the standard mediums. But most excitingly, adding Carnosine to the cell medium made the cells younger. McFarland and Holliday described the results as “Striking effects on the cell morphology [shape and structure],” saying that, “Carnosine preserved a nonsenescent [youthful] morphology.” The cells raised in the usual medium got old, blotchy, and irregular, and were broken apart into scattered islands of twisted debris. Yet clearly, the cells raised in Carnosine still had the same appearance as when they were young: the colonies were flat and maintained their youthful whirling patterns; they were still smooth, regular, and even. And, remarkably, cells bathed in Carnosine stayed youthful almost until the very end of their lives.

McFarland and Holliday later showed that they could take cells from the Carnosine medium, move them into the standard culture, and see them grow old – but then move them back into the Carnosine bath, and have them spring back into youth again. “Switching cells between media with and without carnosine also switches their phenotype [visibly observable properties] from senescent [aged] to juvenile, and the reverse.” They “propose that Carnosine is an important component of cellular maintenance mechanisms,” and “favor the view that it may have a very important role in controlling cellular homeostasis” – that is, in keeping cells in the tightly-regulated condition that optimizes their function.

More Resistant to Features of Aging
In a recent series of experiments, one group of SAM mice had Carnosine added to their drinking water (the human equivalent of about one gram each day, adjusting for metabolic considerations), while another received no supplement. Animals receiving Carnosine lived 20% longer, on average, than their non-Carnosine littermates – and more excitingly, the maximum survivorship was 6% longer, too.

Animals who got the Carnosine supplement looked and acted younger throughout their lives when held up against animals not fed Carnosine. Examined at midlife, the Carnosine-fed animals showed over 40% less loss of hair fullness and color, and suffered 61% fewer skin ulcers, than the control animals. The animals that got the supplemental Carnosine also showed significantly less of the sores around the eyes that developed in animals not given Carnosine, and 13% less senile spinal curvature.

Perhaps most excitingly, Carnosine-fed animals kept their mental faculties sharper, longer than their unsupplemented littermates. Animals fed Carnosine performed 29% better on tests of passive avoidance and nearly six and a half times better on tests of “reactivity” (a measure of youthful exploratory curiosity). In short, the scientists concluded Carnosine supplements made them “more resistant to features of aging.”

When the researchers looked at the brains of the SAM animals, they discovered some of the biochemical changes that underlay these results. First, the scientists examined the binding of the brain messenger glutamate to the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, a process that is crucially involved in long-term memory formation. The scientists found that Carnosine therapy increased the binding of glutamate to this receptor.

A Promising Agent in the Therapy of Brain Stroke
In animal studies, Carnosine has been shown to reduce mortality, and to prevent much of the brain damage and loss of mental function, after a simulated stroke. Animals receiving Carnosine before blocking the blood vessels that feed their brains are less than half as likely to die, and the memory function and the activity of key brain enzymes is better preserved in Carnosine-supplemented survivors than in survivors who did not receive the supplement. In fact, rodent “stroke” survivors who get Carnosine perform as well on many memory tests as they did before the “stroke!”

Anti-Cancer Hopes
While performing their astounding cell-rejuvenation experiments, Holliday and MacFarland happened to find that one of their cell cultures had become contaminated with cancer cells, which quickly began to choke out the healthy ones. But when Carnosine was added to samples of this contaminated population, it was found that the cell cultures became free of cancer cells. The same results followed when Carnosine was tested against seven human cancer cell lines. The researchers found that they could add cancerous cells to a culture of healthy ones, bathe the warring tribes in Carnosine – and sit back and watch as the cancer cells slowly disappeared from the pool, even as the healthy cells thrived.

When Japanese researchers implanted cancer cells into laboratory mice, and then administered a daily injection of Carnosine two centimeters away from the implant site, Carnosine-treated animals showed reduced tumor growth and mortality compared to animals not receiving the dipeptide. In some cases, tumors regressed. The effects were further enhanced when Carnosine was combined with an immune-enhancing drug.

Pluripotent Protective Effects
But if we try to pin down just how it is that Carnosine can exert its other wide-ranging anti-aging effects, we’ll have a hard time choosing among all the options. The protective properties of Carnosine have been described as “pluripotent” – that is, “many-powered.” Carnosine is a highly versatile antioxidant, and also has indirect antioxidant powers through the chelation of pro-oxidant metals and the prevention of the destruction of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) normally seen in cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide.

The power of these combined antioxidant actions was shown in experiments in which cells were exposed to toxic levels of oxygen. Carnosine treatment preserved healthy cell structure and reduced damage to the cells’ DNA even though no other tested antioxidant could do so: not vitamin C, not vitamin E, not N-acetylcysteine (NAC), nor the potent synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin.

Carnosine protects against the formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs), warped cellular proteins that have been damaged by sugar. Preliminary studies in animals fed a high-fructose diet suggest that Carnosine’s AGE-fighting ability helps preserve the flexibility of blood vessels, preventing some of the increase in blood pressure that is otherwise suffered under such circumstances. As well, Carnosine also maintains more youthful levels of proteolysis (the ability to tear down old, defective cellular proteins) in cells, – a process which slows down in old cells, interfering with cellular function. And Carnosine has been shown to react with certain abnormal proteins in a way which some research suggests may make them more readily broken up and disposed of by the cell’s “garbage disposal” systems.

Carnosine changes gene expression in cells exposed to it, including increasing the expression of vimentin, a protein involved in maintaining the integrity and complex internal structure of the cell. Carnosine enhances various aspects of immunity, and protects cells against damage from a variety of toxins produced in the body as a part of normal metabolism. Test-tube studies have found that Carnosine also prevents amyloid beta-peptide, which forms the seed of the plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease. One clinical study found that Carnosine supplementation benefited children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. The list of protective functions goes on and on.

Carnosinase and Effective Dosing
The body has a family of enzymes called carnosinases, which break Carnosine down into its component amino acids. Researchers believe that this may be a way of storing histidine in a form that does not trigger inflammation, allowing it to be released as needed. Because of these enzymes, Carnosine doses below a certain threshold are rapidly metabolized away by the body. Experiments clearly show that feeding laboratory animals Carnosine in dosages equivalent to a human taking over four hundred milligrams of Carnosine a day have no effect on Carnosine levels in muscles, heart, or liver, while higher dosages increase muscle Carnosine levels and (as we have seen) have clear therapeutic benefits to the brain and body. While the exact cutoff point is uncertain, and indeed may vary from one individual to another, benefits clearly and consistently emerge at dosages equivalent to 945 milligrams per day and up for a person of average weight (70 kilograms).

Jump In – The Water’s Fine
We still haven’t explored many possible roles of Carnosine in human health, including preliminary studies suggesting that forms of Carnosine may prove to be a useful treatment for ulcers, improves wound healing, and is a remarkable heart-protective nutrient which increases the heart’s ability to contract and helps blood vessels to relax. As more and more research is done, the promise of this remarkable nutrient begins to shine more and more brightly.

Research

It has been demonstrated in a clinical study that Beta-alanine supplementation affects muscle carnosine levels and alleviates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters (W. Derave et all, 2007). Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is present in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle. The intake of beta-alanine known as the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine can elevate the muscle carnosine content. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (proton MRS) it was investigated whether oral supplementation with beta-alanine during 4 weeks would raise the level of carnosine content in the calf muscle and therefore affect exercise performance in 400m sprint-trained competitive athletes. Fifteen male athletes took part in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study and were supplemented orally for 4 weeks with either 4.8g/day beta-alanine or placebo. Muscle carnosine was increased as a result of the oral β-alanine supplementation in sprint-trained athletes. Carnosine increase attenuated fatigue in repeated rounds of exhaustive dynamic contractions, however the carnosine in the muscle did not improve the isometric endurance or race time of the subjects.

Read More

In another study the influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and the cycling capacity of thirteen male subjects that were supplemented with beta-alanine (CarnoSyntrade mark) for 4 wks, 8 of these for 10 wks was investigated. Muscle carnosine synthesis is limited by beta-alanine availability. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained from 6 of the 8 at 0, 4 and 10 wks. Participants then undertook a cycle capacity test to determine total work done (TWD) at 110% (CCT(110%)) of their maximum power (W(max)). Twelve subjects received a placebo. Eleven of the subjects finished the CCT(110%) at 0 and 4 wks, and 8, 10 wks. Then muscle biopsies were obtained from 5 of the 8 and one additional subject. It was found that muscle carnosine was significantly increased by +58.8% and +80.1% after 4 and 10 wks of beta-alanine supplementation. Carnosine, initially 1.71 times higher in type IIa fibres, increased equally in both type I and IIa fibres but not in the control subjects. After 4 wks beta-alanine supplementation, it resulted in a significant increase in TWD (+13.0%); with a further +3.2% increase at 10 wks. TWD was unchanged at 4 and 10 wks in the control subjects. The increase in TWD with supplementation followed the increase in muscle carnosine.

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-Carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorders, it was discovered that L-Carnosine can enhance frontal lobe function or be neuroprotective. It can also correlate with y-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-homocarnosine interaction, with possible anticonvulsive effects. 31 children with autistic spectrum disorders took part in an 8-week, double-blinded study to determine if 800 mg L-carnosine daily would result in observable Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, the Expressive and Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary tests, and Clinical Global Impressions of Change. Children on placebo did not show statistically significant changes. After 8 weeks on L-carnosine, children showed statistically significant improvements on the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale and the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary test (all P < .05). Improved trends were noted on other outcome measures. Although the mechanism of action of L-carnosine is not well understood, it may enhance neurologic function, perhaps in the entorhinal or temporal cortex.

Market Trends

Carnosine supplements are most commonly taken for the purposes of protecting the body from the effects of free radical damage, reducing age related cellular dysfunction and blocking the growth of irregular cells.

AOR Advantage

Carnosine has demonstrated its effects as a potent protector of cells and is available in an effective dosage in AOR’s Carnosine-500.



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