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Allevian Maca 90 vcaps - Compared to many products in the market, Allevian doesn’t just relieve the pain, but it helps to rebuild muscle tissue, ligaments, bone structure, etc. The combination of Maca and Cat’s Claw work together naturally, and working fast with your body.
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Allevian Maca 90 vcaps


Allevian Maca 90 vcaps is manufactured by UHTCO Corporation

Shipped by Canada Post in Canada, USPS in US

Traditionally Maca and Cat’s Claw has been used by native Peruvians for many issues, including:

• ArthritisOsteoarthritis
• Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Joint Pain & Muscle Pain
• Fibromyalgia
• Headaches and Migraines
• Maintain Physical Condition and Reflexes.
• Energy (chronic fatigue).
• Physical & Emotional Well Being.
• Immunological Support
• Stamina & Athletic Performance.

Allevian® is a unique product designed to support normal joint function and general comfort, maintaining a sense of healthy energy and vitality. Made from a proprietary blend of select maca root extracts, from fresh and dry roots (mainly purple maca), and a powerful atomized cat’s claw bark extract, both in higher concentrations than ever! The concept of this product is supported by the anti-inflammatory effects of the cat’s claw and the nutritional values of the maca, once the inflammation is reduced; the maca nutrients assist the system to restore its normal functions.

The Wonders of Maca

Maca (Lepidium Meyenii Walp) is a root that grows only in the Andean highlander zones of Peru, on the Junin Plateau, at altitudes of 4,250 mt. over sea level (approx. 14,000 ft.).

The plant is grown from seed and root maturation generally occurs within seven months. Its appearance may be described as a shrub with a low-growing, mat-like stem arrangement, small, off-white flowers, and scalloped leaves. The root can be one of several colours (cream, purple or black) and is of comparable shape to a turnip or radish.

Maca is considered as a super food as it contains high nutritional values. It is rich in vitamins and minerals and the protein content of maca exists mainly in the form of polypeptides and amino acids. Maca is also rich in essential fatty acids and complex carbohydrates.

Maca is also an Adaptogen Plant, which brings the body to a high state of resistance to decease through nutrition.

About Cat’s Claw

Cat's Claw or Uña de Gato, is a woody vine that comes to us from the exotic highlands and jungles of the Amazon Rain Forest of Peru. Considered a sacred botanical by the locals Indians, this vine grows wild in the highlands of the Peruvian Amazon in South America.

Ashaninca Indians have used both, the bark and roots of the vine for generations to treat numerous health problems, targeting the immune and digestive systems in particular. Peruvian tribal folklore describes decoctions or teas made from Uncaria Tomentosa vine and their extraordinary ability to treat tumours, soothe arthritis, ease gastric upsets and boost immune system.


CAT’S CLAW
HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS

  • ■ Stimulates immune system
  • Relieves pain Vine Bark
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Kills viruses
  • Protects cells detoxifies
  • Fights free radicals
  • Cleanses blood times daily
  • Cleanses bowel
  • Increases urination
  • Kills cancer cells
  • Lowers blood pressure
  • Kill leukemia cells
  • Reduces cholesterol’
  • Tones and balances decreases depression

follow the label instructions”

Cat’s claw (U. tomentosa) is a large, woody vine that derives its name from hook-like thorns that grow along the vine and resemble the claws of a cat. Two closely related species of Uncaria are used almost interchangeably in the rainforests: U. tomentosa and U. guianensis. Both species can reach over 30 m high into the canopy. U. tomentosa has small, yellowish-white flowers, whereas U. guianensis has reddish-orange flowers and thorns that are more curved. Cat’s claw is indigenous to the Amazon rainforest and other tropical areas of South and Central America, including Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Trinidad, Venezuela, Suriname, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Panama.

There are other species of plants with a common name of cat’s claw (or uña de gato) in Mexico and Latin America however, they are entirely different plants, not belonging to the Uncaria genus, or even the Rubiaceae family. Several of the Mexican uña de gato varieties have toxic properties.

TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

Both South American Uncaria species are used by the indigenous peoples of the Amazon rainforest in very similar ways and have long histories of use. Cat’s claw (U. tomentosa) has been used medicinally by the Aguaruna, Asháninka, Cashibo, Conibo, and Shipibo tribes of Peru for at least 2,000 years. The Asháninka Indian tribe in central Peru has the longest recorded history of use of the plant. They are also the largest commercial source of cat’s claw from Peru today. The Asháninka use cat’s claw to treat asthma, inflammations of the urinary tract, arthritis, rheumatism, and bone pain to recover from childbirth as a kidney cleanser to cure deep wounds to control inflammation and gastric ulcers and for cancer. Indigenous tribes in Piura use cat’s claw to treat tumors, inflammations, rheumatism, and gastric ulcers. Other Peruvian indigenous tribes use cat’s claw to treat diabetes, urinary tract cancer in women, hemorrhages, menstrual irregularity, cirrhosis, fevers, abscesses, gastritis, rheumatism, tumors, and inflammations as well as for internal cleansing and to “normalize the body.” Reportedly, cat’s claw has also been used as a contraceptive by several different tribes of Peru (but only in very large dosages). Dr. Fernando Cabieses, M.D., a noted authority on Peruvian medicinal plants, explains that the Asháninka boil 5 to 6 kg (about 12 pounds) of the root in water until it is reduced to little more than 1 cup. This decoction is then taken 1 cup daily during the period of menstruation for three consecutive months this supposedly causes sterility for three to four years.

Cat’s claw has been used in Peru and Europe since the early 1990s as an adjunctive treatment for cancer and AIDS as well as for other diseases that target the immune system. In herbal medicine today, cat’s claw is employed around the world for many different conditions, including immune disorders, gastritis, ulcers, cancer, arthritis, rheumatism, rheumatic disorders, neuralgias, chronic inflammation of all kinds, and such viral diseases as herpes zoster (shingles). Dr. Brent Davis, D.C. has written several articles on cat’s claw and refers to it as the “opener of the way” for its ability to cleanse the entire intestinal tract and its effectiveness in treating stomach and bowel disorders (such as Crohn’s disease, leaky bowel syndrome, ulcers, gastritis, diverticulitis, and other inflammatory conditions of the bowel, stomach, and intestines). Dr. Julian Whitaker, M.D. reports using cat’s claw for its immune-stimulating effects, for cancer, to help prevent strokes and heart attacks, to reduce blood clots, and for diverticulitis and irritable bowel syndrome.

PLANT CHEMICALS

Cat’s claw has several groups of plant chemicals that account for much of the plant’s actions and uses. First and most studied is a group of oxidole alkaloids that has been documented with immune-stimulant and antileukemic properties. Another group of chemicals called quinovic acid glycosides have documented anti-inflammatory and antiviral actions. Antioxidant chemicals (tannins, catechins and procyanidins) as well as plant sterols (beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol) account for the plant’s anti-inflammatory properties. A class of compounds known as carboxyl alkyl esters found in cat’s claw has been documented with immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, anticancerous, and cell-repairing properties.

Cat’s claw contains ajmalicine, akuammigine, campesterol, catechin, carboxyl alkyl esters, chlorogenic acid, cinchonain, corynantheine, corynoxeine, daucosterol, epicatechin, harman, hirsuteine, hirsutine, iso-pteropodine, loganic acid, lyaloside, mitraphylline, oleanolic acid, palmitoleic acid, procyanidins, pteropodine, quinovic acid glycosides, rhynchophylline, rutin, sitosterols, speciophylline, stigmasterol, strictosidines, uncarine A thru F, and vaccenic acid.

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

With so many documented traditional uses of this important rainforest plant, it is not surprising that it came to the attention of Western researchers and scientists. Studies began in the early 1970s when Klaus Keplinger, a journalist and self-taught ethnologist from Innsbruck, Austria, organized the first definitive work on cat’s claw. Keplinger’s work in the 1970s and 1980s led to several extracts of cat’s claw being sold in Austria and Germany as herbal drugs, as well as the filing of four U.S. patents describing extraction procedures for the immune-stimulating oxindole alkaloids. These novel oxindole alkaloids fueled worldwide interest in the medicinal properties of this valuable vine of the rainforest. Other independent researchers in Spain, France, Japan, Germany, and Peru followed Keplinger, many of them confirming his research on the immunostimulating alkaloids in the vine and root. Many of these studies published from the late 1970s to early 1990s indicated that the whole oxindole alkaloid fraction, whole vine bark and/or root bark extracts, or six individually-tested oxindole alkaloids, when used in relatively small amounts, increased immune function by up to 50%. These study results were substantiated by Canadian researchers at the University of Ottawa (1999) and by Peruvian researchers (1998), both working with whole vine extract.

Proprietary extracts of cat’s claw have been manufactured since 1999, and clinical studies, funded by the manufacturers of these extracts, have been published showing that these cat’s claw products continue to provide the same immune-stimulating benefits as has been documented for almost 20 years.

But then facts concerning cat’s claw’s benefits became confusing, as often happens with market-driven research. A manufacturer of a cat’s claw extract funded a test tube study about these immune-stimulating alkaloids. The research indicated that, supposedly, two different types (chemotypes) of cat’s claw vines are growing in the rainforest, and/or that cat’s claw produces “good alkaloids” and “bad alkaloids.” It has coined the “good ones” pentacyclic (POA) alkaloids and the “bad ones” tetracyclic (TOA) alkaloids both are oxindole alkaloids. The research and marketing attempts to suggest that one set of “bad alkaloids” counteracts the immune benefits of the “good alkaloids.”

This research has not been confirmed by independent researchers – that is, those who are not selling cat’s claw or being paid by companies selling cat’s claw. This research has also not been confirmed in humans or animals. This market-driven research would seek to discount or disprove all the definitive, independent research done over the last three decades in Japan, Peru, Germany, Spain, and the United States (including the four U.S. patents filed by these same researchers). Much of the previous independent research was performed on whole oxindole extracts and whole root or vine extracts (some in humans and animals). This research documented the presence of both types of alkaloids, both of which showed immune stimulant actions. Indeed, some of the “new research” refuted the marketer’s original (and independently confirmed) findings! As for the possibility of a “new chemotype”: a plant doesn’t change its chemical constituency in five years. Again, two species of cat’s claw exist – U. tomentosa and U. guianensis they have a similar chemical makeup but a different ratio of oxindole alkaloids. Admittedly U. tomentosa has declined in the Peruvian rainforest because of overharvesting in the last five to eight years. The lower growing and easier-to-find U. guianensis variety is a common “adulterant” in many large lots of cat’s claw bulk material being exported out of South America today.

In addition to its immunostimulating activity, in vitro anticancerous properties have been documented for these alkaloids and other constituents in cat’s claw. Five of the oxindole alkaloids have been clinically documented with in vitro antileukemic properties, and various root and bark extracts have demonstrated antitumorous and anticancerous properties. Italian researchers reported in a 2001 in vitro study that cat’s claw directly inhibited the growth of a human breast cancer cell line by 90%, while another research group reported that it inhibited the binding of estrogens in human breast cancer cells in vitro. Swedish researchers documented it inhibited the growth of lymphoma and leukemia cells in vitro in 1998. Early reports on Keplinger’s observatory trials with cancer patients taking cat’s claw in conjunction with such traditional cancer therapies as chemotherapy and radiation reported fewer side effects to the traditional therapies (such as hair loss, weight loss, nausea, secondary infections, and skin problems). Subsequent researchers have shown how these effects might be possible: they have reported that cat’s claw can aid in DNA cellular repair and prevent cells from mutating it also can help prevent the loss of white blood cells and immune cell damage caused by many chemotherapy drugs (a common side effect called leukopenia).

Another significant area of study has focused on cat’s claw’s anti-inflammatory properties. While plant sterols and antioxidant chemicals found in cat’s claw account for some of these properties, new and novel plant chemicals called quinovic acid glycosides were documented to be the most potent anti-inflammatory constituents of the plant. This study and subsequent ones indicated that cat’s claw (and, especially, its glycosides) could inhibit inflammation from 46% up to 89% in various in vivo and in vitro tests. The results of these studies validated its long history of indigenous use for arthritis and rheumatism, as well as for other types of inflammatory stomach and bowel disorders. It was also clinically shown to be effective against stomach ulcers in an in vivo rat study.

Research in Argentina reports that cat’s claw is an effective antioxidant other researchers in 2000 concluded that it is an antioxidant as well as a remarkably potent inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha production. TNF represents a model for tumor growth driven by an inflammatory cytokine chemical. Other researchers in the United States reported in 2002 that the anti-inflammatory actions of cat’s claw are not attributable to immunostimulating alkaloids but rather to another group of chemicals called carboxyl alkyl esters. This would explain why a product comprised of mostly alkaloids showed only modest benefit to arthritis patients in a study by another group that was incidentally selling a special alkaloid preparation of cat’s claw. The same group of anti-inflammatory glycoside chemicals also demonstrated in vitro antiviral properties in another earlier study.

In addition to the immunostimulant alkaloids, cat’s claw contains the alkaloids rhynchophylline, hirsutine, and mitraphylline, which have demonstrated hypotensive and vasodilating properties. Rhynchophylline has shown to prevent blood clots in blood vessels, dilate peripheral blood vessels, lower the heart rate, and lower blood levels of cholesterol. Some of the newer research indicates that cat’s claw might be helpful to people with Alzheimer’s disease this could be attributable to the antioxidant effects already confirmed or, possibly, to the dilation of peripheral blood vessels in the brain by alkaloids such as rhynchophylline.

Another research group recently reported that cat’s claw’s immune-stimulating alkaloids pteropodine and isopteropodine might have other properties and applications. They reported that these two chemicals have shown to have a positive modulating effect on brain neurotransmitters called 5-HT(2) receptors. These receptor sites are targets for drugs used in treating a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, chronic pain conditions, and obesity.

CURRENT PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

Cat’s claw has grown quite popular in the natural products industry and is mostly taken today to boost immune function, as an all over tonic and preventative to stay healthy, for arthritis and inflammation, for bowel and colon problems, and as an complementary therapy for cancer. The most common forms used today are cat’s claw capsules and tablets, both of which have become widely available in most health food stores at reasonable prices. There are also newer (and more expensive) proprietary extracts of cat’s claw in tablets and capsules, some backed by research-albeit paid-for research.

A good-quality, natural cat’s claw vine bark with naturally occurring chemicals is the best value, money wise. It contains all the natural chemicals that nature provides in the proper ratio (including immune-stimulating alkaloids, anti-inflammatory glycosides, and antioxidant chemicals), without chemical intervention. Some invasive extraction and manufacturing techniques may only extract one particular type of chemical, or change the complex ratio of naturally occurring chemicals in the plant-which ignores the efficiency and synergy of the plant. Scientists do not fully know how all these complex chemicals work together in harmony. In fact, scientists are still discovering new and novel active chemicals in this plant, even after 20 some-odd years of research on cat’s claw. As the market demand has increased for this rainforest plant over the last five years, more companies have gone into the business of harvesting it, and the quality of the bulk materials coming in from South America can be sometimes questionable. Oftentimes, a combination of U. tomentosa and U. guianensis is harvested and sold as “cat’s claw” (as, presently, the guianensis species is found more easily). Pick a good quality and trusted label and manufacturer for the best results and the best value.

CAT’S CLAW PLANT SUMMARY
Main Preparation Method:
decoction, fluid extract, or capsules

Main Actions (in order):
immune stimulant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic (cellular protector), anticancerous, antiulcerous

Main Uses:

1. as an immune stimulant and an adjunctive therapy for cancer (to reduce side effects of chemotherapy and protect cells)
2. as a bowel cleanser and anti-inflammatory for Crohn’s, colitis, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and other bowel problems
3. as an anti-inflammatory for arthritis (all kinds) and muscle pains/strains/injuries
4. as a general daily tonic (to tone, balance, and strengthen all body functions)
5. for stomach ulcers and ulcerative colitis and as an ulcer preventative/ stomach and bowel protector)

Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
anti-inflammatory, antiulcerous, anticancerous, antidepressant, antileukemic, antimutagenic (cellular protector), antioxidant, antitumorous, antiviral, contraceptive, immune stimulant

Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
analgesic (pain-reliever), anticoagulant (blood thinner), antidysenteric, blood cleanser, detoxifier, diuretic, gastrotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the gastric system), hypocholesterolemic (lowers cholesterol), tonic (tones, balances, strengthens overall body functions), wound healer

Cautions: Do not use before or after an organ or bone marrow transplant since it boosts immune function. May also have a mild blood thinning effect.

Traditional Preparation: For general immune and prevention benefits, practitioners usually recommend 1 g daily of vine powder in tablets or capsules. Therapeutic dosages of cat’s claw are reported to be as high as 20 g daily and average 2-3 grams two or three times daily. Generally, as a natural aid for arthritis and bowel and digestive problems 3-5 g daily is recommended, if a good product is obtained. Alternatively, a standard vine bark decoction can be used much the same way indigenous people of the Amazon use it. The dosage for a standard decoction for general health and maintenance is 1/2-1 cup of a decoction once daily and up to 1 cup three times daily in times of special needs. Adding lemon juice or vinegar to the decoction when boiling will help extract more alkaloids and fewer tannins from the bark. Use about 1/2 teaspoon of lemon juice or vinegar per cup of water. For standardized and/or proprietary extract products, follow the label instructions.

Contraindications:

* Cat’s claw has been clinically documented with immunostimulant effects and is contraindicated before or following any organ or bone marrow transplant or skin graft.
* Cat’s claw vine bark requires sufficient stomach acid to help break down the tannins and alkaloids during digestion and to aid in absorption. Avoid taking bark capsules or tablets at the same time as antacids. Avoid taking high tannin (dark-colored) liquid extracts and tinctures directly by mouth and dilute first in water or acidic juice (such as orange juice).
* Large dosages of cat’s claw (3-4 gram dosages at a time) have been reported to cause some abdominal pain or gastrointestinal problems, including diarrhea (due to the tannin content of the vine bark) in some people. The diarrhea or loose stools tend to be mild and go away with continued use. Discontinue use or reduce dosage if diarrhea persists longer than three or four days.

Drug Interactions:

* Due to its immunostimulant effects, cat’s claw should not be used with medications intended to suppress the immune system, such as cyclosporin or other medications prescribed following an organ transplant. (This theory has not been proven scientifically.)
* Based upon in vivo rat studies, cat’s claw may protect against gastrointestinal damage associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen.
* Cat’s claw may potentiate coumadin and blood-thinning drugs.

WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
“Colombia for dysentery, gonorrhea”
“French Guiana for dysentery”
“Peru for abscesses, AIDS, arthritis, asthma, blood cleansing, bone pains, cancer, cirrhosis, diabetes, diarrhea, disease prevention, dysentery, fevers, gastric ulcers, gastritis, gonorrhea, hemorrhages, herpes, immune disorders, inflammations, intestinal affections, menstrual irregularity, kidney cleansing, prostatitis, rheumatism, shingles, skin disorders, stomach disorders, ulcers problems, urinary tract disorders, tumors, wounds”
“Suriname for dysentery, intestinal disorders, wounds”

The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2004
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

† The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.

Third-Party Published Research

All available third-party research on cat’s claw can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on cat’s claw is shown below:

Immunostimulant & Immunomodulatory Actions:
Erowele, G., et al. “Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of cat’s claw.” Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 2009 Jun 1 66(11): 992-5.
Reis, S., et al. “Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncaria tomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2.” Int. Immunopharmacol. 2008 8(3): 468-76.
Holderness, J., et al. “Select plant tannins induce IL-2Ralpha up-regulation and augment cell division in gammadelta T cells.” J. Immunol. 2007 Nov 179(10): 6468-78.
Groom, S., et al. “The potency of immunomodulatory herbs may be primarily dependent upon macrophage activation.” J. Med. Food. 2007 Mar 10(1): 73-9.
Spelman, K., et al. “Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators.” Altern. Med. Rev. 2006 Jun 11(2): 128-50.
Eberlin, S., et al. “Uncaria tomentosa extract increases the number of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes.” Int. Immunopharmacol. 2005 5(7-8):1235-46.
Deharo, E., et al. ”In vitro immunomodulatory activity of plants used by the Tacana ethnic group in Bolivia.” Phytomedicine. 2004 Sep 11(6): 516-22.
Lamm, S., et al, “Persistent response to pneumococcal vaccine in individuals supplemented with a novel water soluble extract of Uncaria tomentosa, C-Med-100.” Phytomedicine. 2001 8(4): 267–74.
Sheng Y, et al., “Treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia in a rat model with aqueous extract from Uncaria tomentosa.” Phytomedicine. 2000 7(2): 137–43.
Lemaire, I., et al. “Stimulation of interleukin-1 and -6 production in alveolar macrophages by the neotropical liana, Uncaria tomentosa (una de gato).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999 64(2): 109–15.
Marina, M. D. “Evaluacion de la actividal immunoestimulante de Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. Una de gato en ratones albinos.” Biodiversidad Salud. 1998 1(1): 16–19.
Keplinger, H., et al. “Oxindole alkaloids having properties stimulating the immunologic system and preparation containing same.” United States patent 5,302,611 April 12, 1994
Wagner, H., et al. “Die Alkaloide von Uncaria tomentosa und ihre Phagozytose-steigernde Wirkung.” Planta Med. 1985 51: 419–23.
Hemingway, S. R. and J. D. Phillipson. “Alkaloids from South American species of Uncaria (Rubiaceae).” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1974 suppl. 26: 113p.

Anti-inflammatory Actions:
Allen-Hall, L., et al. “Uncaria tomentosa acts as a potent TNF-alpha inhibitor through NF-kappaB.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 6.
Zeng, K., et al. “Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinic acid derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009 Sep 15 19(18): 5458-60.
Erowele, G., et al. “Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of cat’s claw.” Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 2009 Jun 1 66(11): 992-5.
Amaral, S., et al. “Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties–a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.” Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2009 Mar 17(5): 1876-83.
Yuan, D., et al. “Anti-inflammatory effects of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline in mouse N9 microglial cells and the molecular mechanism.” Int. Immunopharmacol. 2009 Dec 9(13-14):1549-54.
Pero, R. “Method of preparation and composition of a water soluble extract of the bioactive component of the plant species Uncaria for enhancing immune, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and DNA repair processes of warm blooded animals.” United States Patent No. 7,595,064. September 29, 2009
Hardin, S. R. “Cat’s claw: An Amazonian vine decreases inflammation in osteoarthritis.” Complement. Ther. Clin. Pract. 2007 Feb 13(1): 25-8.
Allen-Hall, L., et al. “Treatment of THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts differentially regulates the expression if IL-1beta and TNF-alpha.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 109(2): 312-7.
Badilla, B., et al. “Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.” Rev. Biol. Trop. 2006 Jun 54(2):245-52.
Miller, M. J., et al. “The chrondoprotective actions of a natural product are associated with the activation of IGF-1 production by human chondrocytes despite the presence of IL-1beta.” BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2006 Apr 6: 13.
Miller, M. J., et al. “Early relief of osteoarthritis symptoms with a natural mineral supplement and a herbomineral combination: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN38432711].” J. Inflamm. 2005 Oct 2:11.
Valerio, L. G., et al. “Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii): a critical synopsis.” Toxicol. Rev. 2005 24(1): 11-35.
Setty, A. R., et al. “Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects.” Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 34(6): 773-84.
Sheng, Y., et al. “An active ingredient of Cat’s Claw water extracts: identification and efficacy of quinic acid.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 15 96(3):
Aguilar, J. L., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of two different extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002 81(2): 271–76.
Sandoval, M., et al., “Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis) are independent of their alkaloid content.” Phytomedicine. 2002 9(4): 325–37.
Mur, E., et al. “Randomized double blind trial of an extract from the pentacyclic alkaloid-chemotype of Uncaria tomentosa for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.” J. Rheumatol. 2002 Apr 29(4): 678–81.
Sandoval-Chacon, M., et al. “Anti-inflammatory actions of cat’s claw: the role of NF-kappaB.” Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 1998 12(12): 1279–89.
Recio, M. C., et al. “Structural requirements for the anti-inflammatory activity of natural triterpenoids.” Planta Med. 1995 61(2): 182–85.
Aquino, R., et al. “Plant metabolites. New compounds and anti-inflammatory activity of Uncaria tomentosa.” J. Nat. Prod. 1991 54: 453–59.
Cerri, R., et al. “New quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria tomentosa.” J. Nat. Prod. 1988 51: 257–61.

Anticancerous & Antitumor Actions:
García Giménez, D., et al. “Cytotoxic effect of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid mitraphylline isolated from Uncaria tomentosa bark on human ewing’s sarcoma and breast cancer cell lines.” Planta Med. 2010 Feb 76(2):133-6.
Rinner, B., et al. “Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.” Anticancer Res. 2009 29(11): 4519-28.
Erowele, G., et al. “Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of cat’s claw.” Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 2009 Jun 1 66(11): 992-5.
Pilarski, R., et al. “Antiproliferative activity of various Uncaria tomentosa preparations on HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells.” Pharmacol. Rep. 2007 Sep-Oct 59(5): 565-72.
Chen, A., et al. “Induction of apoptosis by Uncaria tomentosa through reactive oxygen species production, cytochrome c release, and caspases activation in human leukemia cells.” Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007 45(11): 2206-18.
García Prado, E., et al. “Antiproliferative effects of mitraphylline, a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid of Uncaria tomentosa on human glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines.” Phytomedicine. 2007 14(4): 280-4.
Gonzales, G.F., et al. “Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.” Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2006 Sep 6(5): 429-44.
De Martino, L., et al. “Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 107(1): 91-4.
Bacher, N., et al. “Oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce apoptosis in proliferating, G0/G1-arrested and bcl-2-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells.” Br. J. Haematol. 2006 Mar 132(5): 615-22.
Riva, L., et al. “The antiproliferative effects of Uncaria tomentosa extracts and fractions on the growth of breast cancer cell line.” Anticancer Res. 2001 21(4A): 2457–61.
Muhammad, I., et al. “Investigation of Una de Gato I. 7-Deoxyloganic acid and 15N NMR spectroscopic studies on pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa.” Phytochemistry. 2001 57(5): 781–5.
Sheng, Y., et al. “Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa.” Anticancer Res. 1998 18(5A): 3363–68.
Salazar, E. L., et al. “Depletion of specific binding sites for estrogen receptor by Uncaria tomentosa.” Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 1998 41(1): 123–124.
Stuppner, H., et al. “A differential sensitivity of oxindole alkaloids to normal and leukemic cell lines.” Planta Med. (1993 suppl.) 59: A583.
Rizzi, R., et al. “Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Uncaria tomentosa and its extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993 38: 63–77.
Peluso, G., et al. “Effetto antiproliferativo su cellule tumorali di estrattie metaboliti da Uncaria tomentosa. Studi in vitro sulla loro azione DNA polimerasi.” 11 Congreso Italo-Peruano de Etnomedicina Andina, Lima, Peru, October 27–30, 1993, 21–2.
Rizzi, R., et al. “Bacterial cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Uncaria tomentosa and its extracts. Antimutagenic activity of Uncaria tomentosa in humans.” Premiere Colloque Européan d’Ethnopharmacologie, Metz, France, March 22–24, 1990.

Cellular Protective & Antioxidant Actions:

Filip, A., et al. “Photochemoprevention of cutaneous neoplasia through natural products.” Exp. Oncol. 2009 Mar 31(1): 9-15.
Amaral, S., et al. “Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties–a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.” Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2009 Mar 17(5): 1876-83.
Paniagua-Pérez, R., et al. “Antigenotoxic, antioxidant and lymphocyte induction effects produced by pteropodine.” Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2009 104(3): 222-7.
Chen, A., et al. “Induction of apoptosis by Uncaria tomentosa through reactive oxygen species production, cytochrome c release, and caspases activation in human leukemia cells.” Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007 45(11): 2206-18.
Mammone, T., et al. “A water soluble extract from Uncaria tomentosa (Cat’s Claw) is a potent enhancer of DNA repair in primary organ cultures of human skin.” Phytother. Res. 2006 20(3): 178-83.
Kuras, M., et al. “Changes in chromosome structure, mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content from cells of Allium Test induced by bark water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 107(2): 211-21.
Pilarski, R., et al. “Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 104(1-2): 18-23.
Cisneros, F. J., et al. “An Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw) extract protects mice against ozone-induced lung inflammation.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 96(3): 355-64.
Goncalves, C., et al. “Antioxidant properties of proanthocyanidins of Uncaria tomentosa bark decoction: a mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity.” Phytochemistry. 2005 66(1): 89-98.
Romero-Jimenez, M., et al. “Genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity of some traditional medicinal herbs.” Mutat. Res. 2005 Aug 585(1-2): 147-55.
Pilarski, R., et al. “Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Sep 29
Sheng, Y., et al. “DNA repair enhancement of aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa in a human volunteer study.” Phytomedicine. 2001 8(4): 275–82.
Sheng, Y., et al. “Enhanced DNA repair, immune function and reduced toxicity of C-Med-100, a novel aqueous extract from Uncaria tomentosa.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 69(2): 115–26.
Sandoval, M., et al. “Cat’s claw inhibits TNFalpha production and scavenges free radicals: role in cytoprotection.” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2000 29(1): 71–8.
Desmarchelier, C., et al. “Evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity in extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.” Phytother. Res. 1997 11(3): 254–256.
Chan-Xun, C., et al. “Inhibitory effect of rhynchophylline on platelet aggregation and thrombosis.” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 1992 13(2): 126–30.

Actions on the Brain, Memory & Alzheimer’s:
Snow, A., et al. “Compounds, compositions and methods for the treatment of amyloid diseases and synucleinopathies such as Alzheimer’s disease, type 2 diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease.” United States Patent No. 7,514,583 April 7, 2009
Castillo, G., et al. “Methods of isolating amyloid-inhibiting compounds and use of compounds isolated from Uncaria tomentosa and related plants.” United States Patent No. 7,314,642 January 1, 2008.
Frackowiak, T., et al. “Binding of an oxindole alkaloid from Uncaria tomentosa to amyloid protein (Abeta1-40).” Z. Naturforsch C. 2006 Nov-Dec 61(11-12): 821-6.
Jurgensen, S., et al. “Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the antinociceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa.” Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2005 Jul 81(3): 466-77.
Kang, T. H., et al. “Pteropodine and isopteropodine positively modulate the function of rat muscarinic M(1) and 5-HT(2) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocyte.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2002 May 444(1-2): 39-45.
Mohamed, A. F., et al. “ Effects of Uncaria tomentosa total alkaloid and its components on experimental amnesia in mice: elucidation using the passive avoidance test.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2001 52(12): 1553–61.
Roth, B. L., et al. “Insights into the structure and function of 5-HT(2) family serotonin receptors reveal novel strategies for therapeutic target development.” Expert Opin. Ther. Targets 2001 Dec 5(6): 685-695.
Castillo, G. “Methods of isolation of amyloid inhibitory ingredients within Uncaria tomentosa.” US Patent No 7,029,710, April, 18, 2006.
Castillo, G. ” Methods of isolating amyloid-inhibiting compounds and use of compounds isolated from Uncaria tomentosa and related plants.” US Patent No. 6,929,808, August 16, 2005.
Castillo, G., et al. “Pharmaceutical compositions containing Uncaria tomentosa extract for treating Alzheimer’s disease and other amyloidoses.” Patent-Pct. Int. Paol. 1998 00 33,659: 67pp.

Antimicrobial Actions:
Chen, X., et al. “Effects of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline on nitric oxide and endothelin-1 secretion from RIMECs induced by Listeriolysin o in vitro.” Vet. Microbiol. 2009 Nov 26.
Reis, S., et al. “Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncaria tomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2.” Int. Immunopharmacol. 2008 8(3): 468-76.
Ccahuana-Vasquez, R., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens.” Braz. Oral Res. 2007 Jan-Mar 21(1): 46-50.
Kloucek, P., et al. “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria District.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun 99(2): 309-12.
Garcia, R., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of isopteropodine.” Z. Naturforsch. 2005 60(5-6): 385-8.
Aquino, R., et al. “Plant metabolites. Structure and in vitro antiviral activity of quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria tomentosa and Guettarda platypoda.” J. Nat. Prod. 1989 4(52): 679–85.

Toxicity Studies & Reviews:
Erowele, G., et al. “Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of cat’s claw.” Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 2009 Jun 1 66(11): 992-5.
Pilarski, R., et al. “Evaluation of biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. using the chicken embryo model.” Folia Biol. (Krakow). 2009 57(3-4): 207-12..
Kuras, M., et al. “Effect of Alkaloid-Free and Alkaloid-Rich preparations from Uncaria tomentosa bark on mitotic activity and chromosome morphology evaluated by Allium Test.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 121(1): 140-7.

Possible Drug Interactions:
Cosentino, C., et al. “Reversible worsening of Parkinson disease motor symptoms after oral intake of Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw).” Clin. Neuropharmacol. 2008 Sep-Oct 31(5): 293-4.
López Galera, R., et al. “Interaction between cat’s claw and protease inhibitors atazanavir, ritonavir and saquinavir.” Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2008 64(12): 1235-6.
Moreno, S., et al. “Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats.” Braz. J. Med. Biol Res. 2007 40(1): 77-80.

Overview:

Named after its hook-like horns, cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is a woody vine native to the Amazon rainforest and other tropical areas of South and Central America. The bark and root of this herb have been used by South Americans since the Inca civilization to treat a variety of health problems, including arthritis, stomach ulcers, inflammation, dysentery, and fevers. It was also used as a form of birth control.

Test tube studies indicate that cat’s claw may stimulate the immune system, help relax the smooth muscles (such as the intestines), dilate blood vessels (helping lower blood pressure), and act as a diuretic (helping rid the body of excess water). It also has antioxidant properties, helping rid the body of particles known as free radicals that damage cells. Preliminary studies show it may have antitumor and anticancer effects as well.

Osteoarthritis

Although few scientific studies have investigated the safety and usefulness of this herb, it has been used traditionally to treat osteoarthritis (OA). One study indicates that it may help relieve pain from knee OA without side effects.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Cat’s claw has been suggested as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because of its anti-inflammatory properties. One small study showed a positive effect when cat’s claw was taken by people who were also taking sulfasalazine or hydroxychloroquine to treat RA. Although cat’s claw may help reduce inflammation, there is no evidence to show that it stops the progression of the disease. For that reason, RA should be treated with conventional medications, which can put the disease into remission.

Further research

Cat’s claw is being studied for a number of other possible uses, including HIV, Chron’s disease, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus), and Alzheimer’s disease. More research is needed before scientists can say whether it is effective.
Plant Description:

Cat’s claw is a thorny vine that can climb as high as 100 feet. It grows primarily in the Amazon rainforest as well as tropical areas in South and Central America. Much of the cat’s claw sold in the United States was grown in Peru.

Cat’s claw got its name from the curved, claw-like thorns that grow on its stem. The root and bark of cat’s claw are the parts used for medicinal purposes.
What’s It Made Of?:

Cat’s claw contains many types of plant chemicals that help reduce inflammation (such as tannins and sterols) and combat certain viruses (such as quinovic acid glycosides).

Cat’s claw preparations are made from the root and bark of the cat’s claw vine. The effectiveness of the root and bark varies depending upon what time of year that portion of the plant is harvested.
Available Forms:

The bark of the cat’s claw vine can be crushed and used to make tea. Standardized root and bark extracts (containing 3% alkaloids and 15% phenols) are also available in either liquid or capsule forms.
How to Take It:

Pediatric

There are no known scientific reports on the pediatric use of cat’s claw. Do not give a child cat’s claw without the supervision of your doctor.

Adult

Precautions:

The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, can trigger side effects and can interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, you should take herbs with care, under the supervision of a health care practitioner.

Cat’s claw appears to have few side effects. However, there have not been enough scientific studies of cat’s claw to fully determine its safety. Some people have reported dizziness, nausea, and diarrhea when taking cat’s claw. The diarrhea or loose stools tend to be mild and go away with continued use of the herb.

Cat’s claw may cause miscarriage and should not be taken by pregnant or nursing women. People with autoimmune diseases, skin grafts, tuberculosis, or those receiving organ transplants should not use cat’s claw because of its possible effects on the immune system.
Possible Interactions:

If you are currently taking any of the following medications, you should not use cat’s claw without first talking to your health care provider.

Immunosuppressive medications — In theory, because cat’s claw may stimulate the immune system, it should not be used with medications intended to suppress the immune system, such as cyclosporin or other medications prescribed following an organ transplant or to treat an autoimmune disease.

NSAIDs — Cat’s claw may protect against gastrointestinal damage associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve).

Alternative Names:

Una de gato Uncaria tomentosa

* Reviewed last on: 11/11/2008
* Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

Supporting Research

Aquino R, De Feo V, De Simone F, et al. New compounds and anti-inflammatory activity of Uncaria tomentosa. J Nat Prod. 1991 54: 453-459.

Gonzales GF, Valerio LG. Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2006 6(5):429-44.

Hardin SR. Cat’s claw: an Amazonian vine decreases inflammation in osteoarthritis. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2007 Feb 13(1):25-8.

Karch SB. The Consumer’s Guide to Herbal Medicine. Hauppauge, New York: Advanced Research Press 1999:55-56.

Keplinger K, Laus G, Wurm M, et al. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) Dethnomedicinal use and new pharmacological, toxicological and botanical results. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 64:23-34.

Lemaire I, Assinewe V, Cano P, et al. Stimulation of interleukin-1 and -6 production in alveolar macrophages by the neotropical liana, Uncaria tomentosa. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 64:109-115.

Mur E, Hartig F, Eibl G, et al. Randomized double blind trial of an extract from the pentacyclic alkaloid-chemotype of uncaria tomentosa for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2002 Apr 29(4):678-81.

Pilarski R, Zielinski H, Ciesiolka D, et al. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8 104(1-2):18-23.

Piscoya J, Rodriguez Z, Bustamante SA, et al. Efficacy and safety of freeze-dried cat’s claw in osteoarthritis of the knee: mechanisms of action of the species Uncaria guianensis. Inflamm Res. 2001 50(9):442-448.

Rizzi R, Re F, Bianchi A, et al. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Uncaria tomentosa and its extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 1993 38(1):63-77.

Rotblatt M, Ziment I. Evidence-Based Herbal Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus, Inc 2002:114-118.

Sandoval M, Charbonnet RM, Okuhama NN, et al. Cat’s claw inhibits TNFalpha production and scavenges free radicals: role in cytoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 29(1):71-78.

Setty AR, Sigal LH. Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jun 34(6):773-84. Review.

Sheng Y, et al. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa. Anticancer Res. 1998 18:3,363-3,368.

Sheng Y, Pero RW, Wagner H. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia in a rat model with aqueous extract from Uncaria tomentosa. Phytomedicine. 2000 7(2):137-143.

Spelman K, Burns J, Nichols D, et al. Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators. Altern Med Rev. 2006 Jun 11(2):128-50. Review.

Steinberg PN. Cat’s claw: medicinal properties of this Amazon vine. Nutrition Science News. 1995.


Maca

Maca is a Peruvian root vegetable used both as food and medicine. It is sometimes called “Peruvian ginseng,” not because the plants have any botanical relationship, but because their traditional uses are somewhat similar. Traditionally, maca has been said to increase energy and stamina, and enhance both fertility and sex drive in men and women.

What is Maca Used for Today?

Maca is widely marketed for improving male sexual function , female sexual function , and both male fertility and female fertility . However, at present there is no reliable evidence that it actually provides any benefits at all.

Much of the evidence for maca comes from animal studies. In one study in rats, use of maca enhanced male sexual function. 1 Animal studies have had mixed results regarding male and female fertility. 2-7

There are two published human trials on maca, performed by a single research group.

In one small 12-week, double-blind , placebo-controlled study, use of maca at 1,500 mg or 3,000 mg increased male libido. 8 While this was an interesting finding, the study did not report benefits in male sexual function, just desire. Since loss of sexual function (eg, impotence) is a more common problem in men than loss of sexual desire, these results do not justify the widespread claim that maca has been shown to act like a kind of herbal Viagra.

Another small study found that 4 months of maca use increased sperm count and sperm function. 9 Unfortunately, this study failed to use a control group, and for this reason its results are essentially meaningless. (For more information on why studies must use a control group, see Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies? )

There are no human trials on maca for female fertility or female sexual function.

Contrary to widespread reporting, maca does not appear to increase testosterone levels, or, in fact, affect any male hormones. 10

Other animal studies hint that maca might offer benefits for prostate enlargement , 11,12stress , 13diabetes , 14 and high blood pressure . 15 However, this evidence is as yet too weak to justify any claims regarding maca and these conditions.

One human trial evaluated a combination of maca and cat’s claw for osteoarthritis, but because it failed to include a placebo group, its results mean little. 16

Dosage

The usual dose of maca is 500 to 1,000 mg three times a day.

Safety Issues

In the two reported human clinical trials, use of maca has not led to any serious adverse effects. However, this herb has not undergone comprehensive safety testing. Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or people with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established.

References

* Cicero AF, Piacente S, Plaza A, et al. Hexanic Maca extract improves rat sexual performance more effectively than methanolic and chloroformic Maca extracts. Andrologia . 2002 34:177-179.

* Ruiz-Luna AC, Salazar S, Aspajo NJ, et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol . 2005 3:16.

* Oshima M, Gu Y, Tsukada S, et al. Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo implantation in mice. J Vet Med Sci . 2003 65:1145-1146.

* Chung F, Rubio J, Gonzales C, et al. Dose-response effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and weight of different organs in adult rats. J Ethnopharmacol . 2005 98:143-147.

* Gonzales GF, Rubio J, Chung A, et al. Effect of alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on testicular function in male rats. Asian J Androl . 2003 5:349-352.

* Bustos-Obregon E, Yucra S, Gonzales GF, et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice. Asian J Androl . 2005 7:71-76.

* Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Cordova A, et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m). J Endocrinol . 2004 180:87-95.

* Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia . 2002 34:367.

* Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Gonzales C, et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl . 2002 3:301-303.

* Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol . 2003 176:163-168.

* Gonzales GF, Miranda S, Nieto J, et al. Red maca ( Lepidium meyenii ) reduced prostate size in rats. ReprodBiol Endocrinol . 2005 3:5.

* Martinez Caballero S, Carricajo Fernandez C, Perez-Fernandez R, et al. Effect of an integral suspension of Lepidium latifolium on prostate hyperplasia in rats. Fitoterapia . 2004 75:187-191.

* Lopez-Fando A, Gomez-Serranillos MP, Iglesias I, et al. Lepidium peruvianum chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress. Phytother Res . 2004 18:471-474.

* Eddouks M, Maghrani M, Zeggwagh NA, et al. Study of the hypoglycaemic activity of Lepidium sativum L. aqueous extract in normal and diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol . 2005 97:391-395.

* Maghrani M, Zeggwagh NA, Michel JB, et al. Antihypertensive effect of Lepidium sativum L. in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol . 2005 Jun 11.

* Mehta K, Gala J, Bhasale S, et al. Comparison of glucosamine sulfate and a polyherbal supplement for the relief of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN25438351]. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Oct 31.







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